Guide to Referencing and Bibliographies

A bibliography lists all the sources used during your research and background reading, not just the ones you refer to in your writing.

A reference list lists only the sources you refer to in your writing.

The purpose of the reference list is to allow your sources to be found by your reader. It also gives credit to authors you have consulted for their ideas. All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list.

Which style should I use?

There are a number of referencing styles available which are used in Australian schools and universities. At Craigslea, it is important that you follow the referencing style that is required by the faculty that has set the assignment that you are completing. Two major referencing styles are used at Craigslea: Harvard and APA.


Harvard Referencing

Your bibliography should identify books, websites etc. in enough detail so that others may identify it and consult it - only include sources you have used.

Your bibliography should appear at the end of your essay/report with entries listed alphabetically by author's surname.

Book - Single Author

Author's surname, author's initials. Year of publication. Title (italics or underlined). Place of publication: Publisher.

Barrass, R. 1978. Scientists Must Write: a guide to better writing for scientists, engineers and students. London: Chapman and Hall.

Book - Multiple Author

Calandra, A. & Ciavarella, G. 2000. Jacaranda SOSE 2: Studies of Society and Environment. Milton, QLD: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

Newspaper Article - With/Without Author

Kerbaj, R. 2006. "Brother of terror suspect speaks", The Australian, 9 February. p.4.

"Dealers rigging eBay auctions" 2007, The Courier Mail, 29 January, p.13.


"Curse of Tutankhamun" (DVD) 2004, Melbourne: Discovery Communications

"Yolngu boy" (video recording) 2000, Fitzroy, Vic: Australian Children's Television Foundation


Name of author or authoring body, date created or last revised, title, <URL>, date accessed

  • keep the website's URL on one line
  • if the author is unknown, cite the title of the website
  • if there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d. (no date) e.g. Arts NSW n.d.

Weart, S. 2005, The discovery of global warming: timeline of milestones. (accessed 24 February 2014)

In-Text Referencing

How to Acknowledge Sources: The Harvard System

It may be necessary to acknowledge references in the text of your paragraph or essay, especially when referring to statistics. When you use another's ideas within the text of your assignment you should immediately acknowledge your sources using the Harvard Author-Date style.

Why do we Reference?

  • To avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the original source of an idea, piece of information or resource.
  • To support your work with the authoritative work of another author.
  • To demonstrate your knowledge and familiarity with a topic that you have researched.
  • To help readers of your work to find the original source of information or ideas that you have used.

In-text citing of sources is made at an appropriate place in the text by stating: surname(s) or author(s), year of publication and page number(s), unless one is referring to a whole work. The year and page number(s) are always placed within brackets, but the surname(s) may be outside the brackets. If there is no known author, the title must be used instead of surname(s). (See Example 5). Quotations and paraphrasing are often introduced in the present tense (e.g., "states that"), but the past tense (e.g., "stated that" or "has stated that") may be used. Consistency is desirable within a particular essay.

Sometimes, however, the past tense is more appropriate even if the present tense has been used elsewhere in the essay. (See Example 4). Either single or double quotation marks may be used when quoting another person's words. Again, consistency is desirable.


  1. Simpson (2006, p.46) states that "lack of exercise is our most serious health program." (Quoting from one page)
  2. It has been claimed that there is a great revival of interest in religion (Reid, 2003, pp.54-55). (Paraphrasing from two pages).
  3. Roger and Phillips (2007) have made a strong plea for the outlawing of nuclear weapons. (Reference to arguments advanced in a whole work, so no page numbers used).
  4. Nearly three decades ago Shaw (1985, p.252) wrote that Australian book sales per head were the highest in the world ('wrote' is more appropriate than 'writes').
  5. It is stated in Wild Life in Australia (2008, p.9) that "Australia is blessed with one of the largest varieties of bird life in any one country of the world." (Quoting from an anonymous author). 

This referencing obviously does not by itself give the reader complete information about the source used. It is therefore essential that complete details are listed in the Bibliography at the end of the assignment.

To illustrate the Harvard System further, two examples from Backtrack: Australia's twentieth century by Glenn Miller follow. These examples illustrate the difference between the setting out of 'short' and 'long' quotations. What is 'short' and 'long' is arbitrary. The most common practice is to consider quotations of 30 or more words as 'long'.

To illustrate the Harvard System further, two examples from Backtrack: Australia's twentieth century by Glenn Miller follow. These examples illustrate the difference between the setting out of 'short' and 'long' quotations. What is 'short' and 'long' is arbitrary. The most common practice is to consider quotations of 30 or more words as 'long'.

A short quotation is incorporated into a sentence without disrupting the flow of the text, and quotation marks are used.


Miller (2007, p.43) writes: "The twentieth century was a time of rapid and relentless change."

By contrast, a long quotation is set out as a freestanding block. The block is indented from the rest of the text, font should be smaller (e.g., 1 point) and no quotation marks are used.


Miller (2007, p.145) points out the problems faced by us and hope for the future:

Of course, rapid industrial growth has come at a cost, and one of the big challenges of this century is to come to terms with the serious impact this has had on the planet's environment. If there is one lesson to be learned from the last hundred years, it is that the world will once again transform itself in the future.

The reader requiring more details of Miller's book turns to the Bibliography, which should include the following entry:

Miller, G. 2007, Backtrack: Australia's twentieth century, Sydney: New Holland

In-Text Referencing for Electronic Sources

Follow the same order for citing online sources within a text as you do for citing printed sources: e.g., surname of the author followed by the year of publication.


To cite a Website within the text of your assignment, use the name of the person or organisation responsible for the site (author) and the date of the site's creation or most recent update.


The Healthshop (2008)

If you wish to give a URL in your text, provide it with angle brackets.


Details are available from the department's Web site <> Web document (author known)

To cite a document from a Web site within the text of an assignment, author, editor or complier and the date on which the document was created or last revised.


Worthington (2008)

International Sporting Shooters Control Board (2007)

Web Document (no author)

To cite a document from a Website within the text of an assignment, where the author is unknown, give the title of the document followed by the date of creation or most recent update.


Educating Australia for the 21st century: developing a strategic plan by Macquarie University (2011)


In-text references should contain the title (in italics) and date of the CD-ROM


Australia through time (2000)

APA Referencing

All in-text citations and end of report references need to use the APA style. It is useful to keep your reference list in a document that you regularly add to as you progress throughout your report writing. This will save a tiresome effort once you have finished your report, finding the necessary information to generate the reference list. APA (7th Edition) referencing style is used in Psychology.

In-Text Citations


In-text citation is the first part of your referencing. You must include an in-text citation every time you quote, paraphrase or summarize somebody else's words or ideas - that includes images, information from the internet, and even tweets! 


Option 1: Using the reference within the sentence. e.g. Plaza and Drew (2020)

The author(s) names are a part of the sentence and appear outside the brackets. Use AND (full word) in this format.

Option 2: Using the reference at the end of a sentence e.g. Psychology is awesome (Plaza & Drew, 2020)

All the referencing information appears within the brackets. Use & (sign) in this format.

Note: When you have 3 or more authors, you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al." (Latin for "and others"). In your reference list, you list all of the authors (up to 20).

Direct Quoting:

Quoting is when you copy the exact words from another source into your work.

  • Place quotation marks around the quote
  • The in-text citation includes author, year of publication and page number
  • Use the paragraph number for sources where the page number is not available

In-Text Citation

Option 1: According to Palladino and Wade (2010), "a flexible mind is a healthy mind" (p. 147).

Option 2: In fact, "a flexible mind is a healthy mind" (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).

Multiple Sources:

When including multiple sources to support a particular point in your writing or demonstrate a consensus:

  • The in-text citation includes all sources in the same set of brackets, ordered alphabetically. Separate the citations with semi colons
  • Include a reference list entry for each source

In-Text Citation

 There is an established consensus that the current trend towards a warming climate is directly linked to human activity (Hegerl, 1996; Levitus et al., 2017; NASA, n.d.; Robinson et al., 2014; Santer et al., 2003). 

Reference List 

Website General Format = Author, A. A. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxyyy


Autism CRC. (n.d.). Robotics social clubs for autistic students. Retrieved from


  • This example has a corporate author.  If no date is evidence, use n.d.
  • If no title is evident, you may need to make one, include it in square brackets [Invented title]
  • There may be other types of texts used in your research.  If so, use the links to the various University websites at the bottom of the page to gain further help.

Reference Generators

Online, there are a number of reference generators that you can input the information about the source and it will create the reference list entry for you. These may be helpful to get you started. Check that the presentation of the reference provided by these generators matches what has been outlined above.

  1. - This site is free and allows you to enter all the necessary information and provides you with the referencing information.
  2. – Another free source that allows you to search for the article, using the title and/or author's name.  The reference details will then be generated and you will be able to copy and paste the information directly to your reference list.

For further information go to:

Queensland University of Technology -

James Cook University -

Curtin University -

Last reviewed 22 March 2022
Last updated 16 February 2021